The Nobel Peace Prize is one of six awards in the memory of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of Dynamite. Every year the organization gives out six awards for the people "who best benefit mankind through their actions" in one of the six subjects; peace, literature, physics, chemistry, economics, and medicine. The Peace Prize is given out in Norway, but the other Prizes are given out in Sweden. This is because Norway and Sweden were one country when the prizes were started.
The man behind the Nobel Prize was Alfred Nobel, a Swedish businessman who was a pioneering chemist, engineer, inventor, and later philanthropist. Holding 355 patents, his most famous invention was dynamite. Though he claimed to be a pacifist, he also established over 90 armaments factories in his life.
1879: Albert Einstein is born in Ulm, Germany. As a child, the prodigy enjoys solving math riddles and building skyscrapers out of playing cards. Some of his card creations are 14 mini-stories tall!